Both studies involved thousands of elderly people over the age of 70 who were at high risk for bone fractures. In each study, the treatment group was given calcium and vitamin D, along with advice on reducing their risks of falling. The control groups were only given the advice to reduce their risks of falling. The results showed that overall, the incidence rate of fractures was less than what was expected for all participants, but there really was no difference in the rates of fractures between the control and the treatment groups.
Does this mean that calcium and vitamin D don't work? Not really. The compliance by subjects declined to 63 percent and even lower after two years. This means several people didn't take the supplements properly.
Another interesting point is that all the participants were given advice on how to limit their risk of falling. This advice was apparently successful, since the fracture rates were lower than expected for all the participants of the studies. These confounding factors may skew the results a bit.
Despite the flaws, these studies show that calcium and vitamin D alone may not be sufficient to reduce the risk of fractures in high-risk elderly people. So prescription medications may be necessary to stop bone loss.
This does not mean that calcium and vitamin D are not important for treatment or prevention of osteoporosis. In fact, all nutritional treatments for osteoporosis include calcium and vitamin D (either in the form of vitamin D2 or vitamin D3). Although a few individual randomized studies showed no reduction of the risk for bone fractures with daily doses of calcium and vitamin D, recent systematic analysis of all published randomized trials suggest that these supplements may actually reduce the number of fractures and the loss of bone in people who take them every day.
Other important nutrients for treatment of prevention of osteoporosis include vitamin B12, magnesium and vitamin K. Lifestyle changes are also needed for successful treatment or prevention of osteoporosis. Those changes include cessation of smoking, reduction of caffeine and alcohol consumption, eating a health diet plus the use of resistive exercises such as lifting weight to increase bone density.
Getting Enough CalciumRather than waiting until your bones begin to lose too much density, you may wish to take some steps to prevent weak bones and osteoporosis. Here are some tips:
- Take calcium. You should get at least 1,200 milligrams of calcium per day. Studies show that the calcium from dairy products is the most absorbable form of dietary calcium. However you can also get calcium from anchovies, salmon (with bones), and calcium-fortified foods. If you don't get enough calcium from your diet, take a calcium supplement.
- Eat fruits and vegetables. They supply your body with nutrients and prevent calcium loss in bones.
- Choose fish more often. Fish is a great source of protein, omega-3 fatty acids and eating fish has been associated with having healthy bones.
- Watch the caffeine. Caffeine may be linked to calcium loss from bones, so limit your intake of caffeinated beverages.
- Get enough vitamin D. Your body needs vitamin D to be able to absorb calcium. Your body makes normally makes vitamin D after exposure to the sun. You don't need to be a sun worshipper; just spending a few minutes outside every day is enough. You may also take 800 IU vitamin D as a supplement.
- Don't smoke. There are so many reasons not to smoke, and this is just another one. Smoking leads to an increase in the risk of bone fractures. If you smoke, you need to quit. If you don't smoke, don't start.
- Get some exercise. Resistive exercise, like weight lifting, is essential for strong bones. Weight lifting puts stress on your bones, but this type of stress is good because it keeps your bones strong.
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